Wo liegt Tatarstan? Tatarstan ist eine autonome Republik im Osten des europäischen Russlands. Ungefähr km entfernt von Moskau findest. Egal welches Reiseziel Sie und Ihre Freunde wählen, wir sagen Ihnen, wie man ein vergnügliches Wochenende verbringen kann. Den letzten Anstoß für meinen Reisewunsch Tatarstan gab dann ein Gespräch im Deutsch-Russischen Kulturinstitut in Dresden. Ein Besucher. <
Über TatarstanAlmetjewsk (russisch Альме́тьевск; tatarisch Әлмәт Älmät) ist eine Großstadt mit Einwohnern (Stand Oktober ) in der autonomen Republik Tatarstan in Russland. Bevölkerung. In der Republik Tatarstan wohnen 3,8 Mio. Menschen, und im Umkreis von km – etwa 50% der Bevölkerung Russlands. Nach Tatarstan per Bahn. Täglich fahren mehr als 10 Züge über Tatarstan, davon 2 Züge auf der Strecke Moskau – Kasan. Die wichtigsten Eisenbahnlinien führen.
Tartarstan Inhaltsverzeichnis VideoTravel To Tatarstan - tatarstan history documentary in urdu and hindi - spider tv - تاتارستان کی سیر Tatarstan President meets Chairman of the Board of Directors of Pharmstandard Company 28/01 Rustam Minnikhanov holds a meeting on the development of the Kazan Airport and the Kazan Expo Exhibition Centre. The region of Tatarstan, now within the Russian Federation, was inhabited by different groups during prehistory. The state of Volga Bulgaria grew up during the Middle Ages and for a time was subject to the Khazars. The Volga Bulgars became Muslim and incorporated various Turkic peoples to form the modern Volga Tatar ethnic group. Tatarstan is situated at the confluence of two large rivers – the Volga and the Kama, being a kind of bridge connecting Russia’s European and Asian parts. Covering an area of 67, km 2, the republic is bigger than such European countries as Belgium and the Netherlands and is approximately equal to Ireland. Detentions accompanied an anti-government demonstration in Kazan, the capital of Russia's Republic of Tatarstan, on January The police violently pushed reporters away to stop them from filming. Tatarstan, also called Tatariya, republic in the east-central part of European Russia. The republic lies in the middle Volga River basin around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers. Kazan (q.v.) is the capital.
On December 20, , in response to Russia recognizing Abkhazia and South Ossetia , the Milli Mejlis of the Tatar People declared Tatarstan independent and asked for United Nations recognition.
On July 24, , the autonomy agreement signed in between Moscow and Kazan expired, making Tatarstan the last republic of Russia to lose its special status.
Note: TFR source. There are about 2 million ethnic Tatars and 1. The Ukrainian , Mordvin , and Bashkir minorities are also significant.
There is a fair degree of speculation as to the early origins of the different groups of Tatars, but most Tatars no longer view religious identity as being as important as it once was, and the religious and linguistic subgroups have intermingled considerably.
This has provoked great controversy, however, as many intellectuals have sought to portray the Tatars as homogeneous and indivisible.
Another unique ethnic group, concentrated in Tatarstan, is the Qaratay Mordvins. Tatar and Udmurt Jews are special territorial groups of the Ashkenazi Jews , which started to be formed in the residential areas of mixed Turkic-speaking Tatars , Kryashens , Bashkirs , Chuvash people , Finno-Ugric-speaking Udmurts , Mari people and Slavic-speaking Russians population.
The Ashkenazi Jews on the territory of Tatarstan first appeared in the s. In accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan, the two state languages of the republic are Tatar and Russian.
According to the Russian Federal Law On Languages of Peoples of the Russian Federation , the official script is Cyrillic. Linguistic anthropologist Dr.
Suzanne Wertheim, notes that "some men signal ideological devotion to the Tatar cause by refusing to accommodate to Russian-dominant public space or Russian speakers", whilst women, in promoting "the Tatar state and Tatar national culture, index their pro-Tatar ideological stances more diplomatically, and with linguistic practices situated only within the Tatar-speaking community Established in , the first Muslim state within the boundaries of modern Russia was Volga Bulgaria from which the Tatars inherited Islam.
Islam was introduced by missionaries  from Baghdad around the time of Ibn Fadlan 's journey in Islam's long presence in Russia also extends at least as far back as the conquest of the Khanate of Kazan in , which brought the Tatars and Bashkirs on the Middle Volga into Russia.
The Khanate of Kazan was conquered by the troops of Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible in the s, with Kazan being taken in Some Tatars were forcibly converted to Christianity and cathedrals were built in Kazan; by , mosques in the area were destroyed.
The Russian government forbade the construction of mosques, a prohibition that was not lifted until the 18th century by Catherine II. When it comes to religion, Islam is the most common faith in Tatarstan, as, In , there were only mosques but the number, as of , rose to well over 1, As of January 1, , as many as 1, religious organizations were registered in Tatarstan, of which 1, were Muslim.
Islam is the most common faith in Tatarstan, as, according one study, The Russian Orthodox Church is the second largest active religion in Tatarstan, and has been so for more than years,  with an estimated 1.
On 23 August , the "Orthodox monuments of Tatarstan" exhibition was held in Kazan by the Tatarstan Ministry of Culture and the Kazan Eparchy.
The Muslim Religious Board of Tatarstan frequently organizes activities, like the ' Islamic graffiti Contest' which was held on November 20, The head of the government in Tatarstan is the President.
Since March , the President has been Rustam Minnikhanov. The Chairman of the State Council is Farit Mukhametshin since May 27, The Prime Minister of the Republic of Tatarstan is Alexei Pesoshin.
According to the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan, the President can be elected only by the people of Tatarstan, but due to Russian federal law, this law was suspended for an indefinite term.
The Russian law on the election of governors says they should be elected by regional parliaments and that the candidate can be presented only by the president of Russia.
On March 25, , Shaymiyev was re-elected for his fourth term by the State Council. This election was held after changes in electoral law and does not contradict the Constitutions of Tatarstan and Russia.
The Republic of Tatarstan is a constituent republic of the Russian Federation. Most of the Russian federal subjects are tied with the Russian federal government by the uniform Federal Treaty, but relations between the government of Tatarstan and the Russian federal government are more complex and are precisely defined in the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan.
The following passage from the Constitution defines the republic's status without contradicting the Constitution of the Russian Federation:.
The sovereignty of the Republic of Tatarstan shall consist in full possession of the State authority legislative, executive and judicial beyond the competence of the Russian Federation and powers of the Russian Federation in the sphere of shared competence of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan and shall be an inalienable qualitative status of the Republic of Tatarstan.
Tatarstan is one of the most economically developed regions of Russia. The republic is highly industrialized and ranks second to Samara Oblast in terms of industrial production per km 2.
The region's main source of wealth is oil. Tatarstan produces 32 million tonnes of crude oil per year and has estimated oil reserves of more than 1 billion tons.
The most developed manufacturing industries are petrochemical industry and machine building. The truck-maker KamAZ is the region's largest enterprise and employs about one-fifth of Tatarstan's workforce.
Tatarstan consists of three distinct industrial regions. The northwestern part is an old industrial region where engineering, chemical, and light industry dominate.
In the newly industrial northeast region with its core in the Naberezhnye Chelny — Nizhnekamsk agglomeration , major industries are automobile construction, the chemical industry, and power engineering.
The southeast region has oil production with engineering under development. The north, central, south, and southwest parts of the republic are rural regions.
Soils are very diverse, the best fertile soils covering one-third of the territory. Due to the high development of agriculture in Tatarstan it contributes 5.
The agricultural sector of the economy is represented mostly by large companies as "Ak Bars Holding" and "Krasniy Vostok Agro". The republic has a highly developed transport network.
The territory of Tatarstan is crossed by the main gas pipelines carrying natural gas from Urengoy and Yamburg to the west and the major oil pipelines supplying oil to various cities in the European part of Russia.
There are three UNESCO world heritage sites in Tatarstan- Kazan Kremlin , Bulgarian state Museum-reserve and assumption Cathedral and Monastery of the town-island of Sviyazhsk.
The annual growth rate of tourist flow to the republic is on average At the end of on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan there were tour operators, of which 32 dealt in domestic tourism, 65 in domestic and inbound tourism, 1 in domestic and outbound tourism, and 6 in all three.
As of January 1, , collective accommodation facilities CSR operate in the Republic of Tatarstan, CSR are subject to classification in Kazan, in other municipalities of the Republic of Tatarstan.
In , special attention was paid to the development of tourist centers of the Republic of Tatarstan — Kazan, Bolghar , the town-island of Sviyazhsk , Yelabuga , Chistopol , Tetyushi.
The growth of tourist flow in the main tourist centers of the Republic compared to amounted to an average of Currently, sanatorium and resort recreation is developing rapidly in Tatarstan.
There are 46 sanatorium-resort institutions in the Republic of Tatarstan. The capacity of the objects of the sanatorium-resort complex of Tatarstan is beds, more than specialists are engaged in the service of residents.
In , more than thousand people rested in the health resorts of the Republic of Tatarstan. Since , the Republic of Tatarstan has been operating the Visit Tatarstan program — the official tourism brand of the Republic, the purpose of which is to inform tourists, monitor the reputation of the Republic, develop the tourism potential of the regions of Tatarstan, conduct market research, partner projects with local companies and international expansion.
Tatarstan: pleasure-the main message that tourists receive. The Visit Tatar website, where there is information about the main sights and recreation in Tatarstan, is available in 8 languages: Tatar, Russian, English, Chinese, German, Spanish, Finnish and Persian.
Major libraries include Kazan State University Nikolai Lobachevsky Scientific Library and the National Library of the Republic of Tatarstan.
In the past several years, new museums appeared throughout the Republic. There are twelve theatrical institutions in Tatarstan.
In , the Tatar singer, Guzel Ahmetova, cooperated with the German Eurodance group named Snap! Tatarstan has Rubin Kazan , a major European football team which has played in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League.
Twice Russian champions, Rubin Kazan play in the Russian Premier League. Also, Tatarstan has Unics Kazan which has gained a significant role in European basketball, playing in Euroleague and EuroCup for decades.
It also has two KHL teams, the successful Ak Bars Kazan , which is based in the capital city of Kazan , and the Neftekhimik Nizhnekamsk , who play in the city of Nizhnekamsk.
The state also has a Russian Major League team the second highest hockey league in Russia , Neftyanik Almetyevsk , who play in the city of Almetyevsk.
There are also two Minor Hockey League teams which serve as affiliates for the two KHL teams. A team also exists in the Russian Hockey League , the HC Chelny , which is based in the city of Naberezhnye Chelny.
Another team plays in the MHL-B the second level of junior ice hockey in Russia. Nail Yakupov is an ethnic Tatar who was drafted first overall in the NHL Entry Draft.
Former ATP No. Kazan hosted the XXVII Summer Universiade in Kazan also hosted the FINA World championship in aquatic sports in August The most important facilities of higher education include Kazan State University , Kazan State Medical University , Kazan State Technological University , World Information Distributed University, Kazan State Technical University , Kazan State Finance and Economics Institute and Russian Islamic University , all located in the capital Kazan.
Tatarstan takes a unique participatory approach to the development of public spaces that has earned it recognition. The Tatarstan Public Spaces Development Programme aims to create spaces for meeting or recreation.
One notable example is the "Beach" at Almetyevsk, which includes public swimming pools and a terrace. The Tatarstan Public Spaces Development Programme was announced as one of the six winners of the Aga Khan Award for Architecture.
Each public space expresses the unique identity of that particular place,  tying in its history while incorporating traditional materials.
Spending on the public spaces projects is helping the local economy. Media related to Tatarstan at Wikimedia Commons Tatarstan travel guide from Wikivoyage.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In a national assembly, the Milli Mejlis , declared Tatarstan independent, but this status has not been recognised by the United Nations or the Russian government.
Human habitation in Tatarstan dates back to the Palaeolithic period. Remains of several cultures of the Stone and Bronze Ages have been discovered within Tatarstan.
During the Iron Age 8th century BCE — 3rd century CE , the Ananyino culture , probably a Finno-Ugrian people , dominated the area of the upper Volga and Kama river valleys.
From the middle of the 1st millennium BC western Tatarstan was occupied by the Gorodets culture. From the 4th century BCE much of the Volga—Kama basin was occupied by tribes of the İmänkiskä culture , who are thought to have been related to the Scythians , speakers of one of the Indo-European languages.
Around the beginning of the 1st century CE a new group, the so-called Pyanobor culture probably of Finnic origin appeared at the lower Kama.
During the great migrations of late antiquity Siberian Turkic and Ugric tribes settled the region east of the middle Volga and forced out the Pyanobor culture from the Kama basin.
The Pyanobor tribes lingered on in what are now the north and north-western parts of Tatarstan. The period from roughly to CE saw an influx of Turkic-speaking nomads.
These immigrants' culture was related to those of the Göktürks , Khazars and the tribes of Great Bulgaria. The 9th and 10th centuries saw the rise of the first organized state in the region, the Khanate of the Volga Bulgars.
The population of Volga Bulgaria was largely agricultural. The cities of Bolghar , Bilär , and Suar , among others, appeared with the growth of industry casting, forging and trade.
Crop-growing and a cattle-breeding played a major role in the economy. The farmers were predominantly free landowners.
In the early 10th century the Volga Bulgars converted to Islam , causing their culture to be greatly influenced by that of the Muslim Middle East.
After the conquest of Volga Bulgaria by Mongol troops under Batu Khan the country was under the control of the khans of the Golden Horde.
As a result of the admixing of different Turkic peoples and languages to the Volga Bolgars during this period, the modern Volga Tatar ethnos emerged.
In the first half of the 15th century, as the result of Golden Horde's collapse, the Khanate of Kazan emerged as the dominant power in the Volga—Kama region.
As Muscovy grew in power and struggled for control of trade routes and territory with the Golden Horde's successor states , Kazan was at times dominated by factions favorable to Moscow , and at other times by factions advocating alliance with other Tatar polities such as the Crimean Khanate.
Finally, the khanate was conquered by Ivan the Terrible in After the khanate was governed by Kazan Palace's Office formed in Moscow.
In a bishop was appointed in Kazan with a mandate to baptize the Idel-Ural peoples. Many churches and monasteries were built, and Russian peasants and craftsmen were resettled within Tatarstan.
At the same time ethnic Tatars were removed from Kazan proper as well as regions close to rivers and roads. Under pressure from the Russians many Tatars emigrated to the Upper Kama , Trans-Kama area, Bashkortostan , the Urals and Siberia during the 16th and 17th centuries.
The result was a decline in agriculture, industry and commerce throughout the region. The local population was forced to pay the yasaq tax.
Some part of the Tatar nobility were included in the nobility of the Russian Empire ; many underwent baptism to keep their privileges. In , the Khanate of Kazan was abolished and the province was placed under the control of a new Kazan Governorate.
It included Middle Volga and Western Urals. Kazan, with 20, citizens, was one of major trade and handicraft centers of Russia.
Manufacturing developed and in the beginning of 19th century major hide, soap and candle factories appeared.
A class of Tatar merchants arose, who carried on brisk trade with Central Asia. Restrictions in occupation, heavy taxation, and discrimination against non-Christians blocked the cultural and economic development of the Tatars.
Several rebellions and peasants' wars broke out as a result. During the Time of Troubles , the Kazan khanate regained its independence with the aid of factions within the Russian army.
Cangali bek , a Tatar nobleman, led another revolution in Abteilung für Haddsch -Angelegenheiten, und 8. Neben der DUMRT existiert noch eine "Zentrale Geistliche Verwaltung der hanafitischen Muslime der Republik Tatarstan, Sibiriens und des Wolgagebiets" Zentralnoje Duchownoje uprawlenije musulman-chanifitow Respubliki Tatarstan, Sibiri i Powolschja , die der ZDUM untersteht.
Sie kontrolliert allerdings nur drei Gemeinden der Republik Tatarstan. Die zweitwichtigste Religion ist das russisch-orthodoxe Christentum.
Die orthodoxe Kirche trat Mitte des Jahrhunderts nach der Eroberung des Kasaner Khanats durch das Russische Zarentum in Erscheinung.
Es gibt kleine Kirchengemeinden, die sich zu anderen Richtungen des Christentums bekennen: Altorthodoxe , Katholiken , Lutheraner und Baptisten.
Katholische Pfarreien bestehen in Kasan und Nabereschnyje Tschelny. Sie gehören zum Bistum St. Clemens in Saratow. Daneben sind Anhänger der jüdischen Religion und des Buddhismus in geringer Zahl vertreten.
Der Anfang der er Jahre zeichnete sich durch institutionelle Entwicklung des Islam in Tatarstan aus, die ihren Niederschlag in erster Linie im sprunghaften Anstieg muslimischer Gemeinden fand.
Während nur noch 18 islamische Verbände registriert waren, wuchs deren Zahl auf Seit Jahren beobachten das russische Innenministerium und der Inlandsgeheimdienst FSB eventuelle islamistische Tendenzen in Tatarstan und versuchen diese rechtzeitig zu bekämpfen.
Dennoch kam es zu Auseinandersetzungen zwischen den Sicherheitskräften und örtlichen Muslimen in der Stadt Nurlat.
Kurz zuvor war sein Stellvertreter Waliulla Jakupow ermordet worden. Die Besiedlung des Gebietes Tatarstans begann bereits im Paläolithikum , vor etwa Der erste Staat, das Reich der Wolgabulgaren entstand um das Jahr n.
Im Jahre wurde der Islam zur Staatsreligion, wodurch das Wolgabulgarenreich unter Einfluss des Arabischen Kalifats geriet.
Nach hartnäckigem Widerstand gegen die Mongolischen Einfälle fiel das hochentwickelte Reich der Wolgabulgaren an die Goldene Horde. Durch innere Zerrüttung zerfiel die Horde in halbunabhängige Emirate.
Auf dem Territorium des heutigen Tatarstan bildete sich das Nachfolgekhanat Kasan. Die Beziehungen zwischen dem Kasaner Khanat und dem nahe gelegenen Moskau waren kriegerischer Natur vgl.
Nach der russischen Eroberung wurde die bisherige herrschende Schicht entmachtet und das Khanat Kasan vollständig in den russischen Staatsverband eingegliedert.
Der Islam als Religion wurde jedoch toleriert, wenngleich der Einfluss des Christentums zunahm, da sich mehr und mehr Russen im Gebiet des heutigen Tatarstan ansiedelten.
Einzelne Versuche zur Missionierung der Tataren durch die Russisch-Orthodoxe Kirche vor allem im Jahrhundert blieben weitgehend erfolglos.
Die tatarische Kaufmannschaft behielt auch unter russischer Herrschaft ihre wirtschaftliche Bedeutung vor allem im Handel zwischen Osteuropa und den muslimischen Staaten Zentralasiens.
Dadurch wurde Kasan zu einem der wichtigsten industriellen und kulturellen Zentren Russlands und zum Zentrum des Gouvernement Kasan erklärt.
Im Jahrhundert waren die Tataren das wirtschaftlich am weitesten entwickelte der muslimischen Turkvölker des Russischen Kaiserreiches. Obwohl die Tataren zahlreicher waren als z.
Während der Auflösung der Sowjetunion erklärte sich Tatarstan am August zur souveränen Republik, was durch ein Referendum bestätigt wurde.
Im November des gleichen Jahres wurde die Verfassung der Republik Tatarstan verabschiedet. Den geschlossenen Föderationsvertrag unterzeichnete Tatarstan im Gegensatz zu den meisten anderen Republiken Russlands nicht in unveränderter Form, sondern vereinbarte mit der russischen Zentralmacht Sonderrechte, die unter anderem eine erweiterte wirtschaftliche Autonomie beinhalten.
Erst im Jahr übernahm die Republik Tatarstan auch die in der Russischen Föderation geltenden Normen zur Ablieferung von Einnahmen an den föderalen Haushalt.
In Artikel 1. Der Staatsrat der Republik Tatarstan , das Parlament der Republik Tatarstan, ist das höchste repräsentative, gesetzgebende und kontrollierende Organ der Staatsgewalt der Republik Tatarstan und besteht aus Volksdeputierten.Erste Schritte Hilfe Autorenportal Projektseiten Letzte Änderungen Wie Zoo Doku Soap Wikivoyage helfen kannst Spenden. We will get in touch with you within 24 hours. Neuer Abschnitt Osteuropa mit Video. Verrückte Internetseiten den Jahren und wurden in Kasan jeweils die 2. Russian Orthodoxy. The discovery of large petroleum deposits helped to promote further major growth in industry. Die Frostperiode dauert von Mitte November bis Anfang April. The Republic of Apps Auslagern Iphone consists of districts and cities of republican significance, the list of which is established by the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan. International Organization of Turkic Culture TÜRKSOY. In the Bolsheviks declared an autonomous Tatar-Bashkir Soviet Socialist Republicbut the region was at the time largely occupied by the White Armythe leader of whom, General Tartarstandid not support an independent Muslim republic. Nach der Machtübernahme von Wladimir Putin im Jahre wurden die politisch-wirtschaftlichen Privilegien der Autonomen Republik Tatarstan im Zuge des Abbauprozesses der vertikalen Gewaltenteilung in Russland schrittweise abgebaut. Help Learn to edit Community Darüber Schlafen Recent changes Upload Sarah Roemer. The Tatarstan Public Spaces Development Programme was announced as one of the six winners of the Aga Khan Award for Architecture. There are three UNESCO world heritage sites in Tatarstan- Kazan KremlinBulgarian state Museum-reserve and assumption Tartarstan and Monastery of the town-island of Sviyazhsk. Published by BiblicalStudies. The republic lies in the Fußball Heute Tv übertragung Zdf Volga River basin around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers. Remains of several cultures of the Stone and Bronze Ages have been discovered within Tatarstan. Coat of arms.